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Sex and the City (of Rome). 1

Callipygian Venus. Fair use

Italian version

The ancient Greco-Romans had a totally different attitude toward sex (so the minor or the puritanical shouldn’t read further.)

Suffice it to have a look at these statues, both beautiful and erotic, to intuitively grasp a sensuality that was open and entirely different from the Western manners of today.

The beauty and natural perfection of these bodies convey in fact the idea – a very simple idea, this very gifted Greek student I recently met would say – that sex wasn’t perceived as lewd or licentious; it was felt instead as one of the joys of life.

It is so simple:
as simple (and beautiful)
as a Greek temple
.

Sex was actually enjoyed naturally though in ways most contemporary folks wouldn’t even imagine, especially when we consider that these statues were somehow linked to rituals and religion.

We can admire above the perfect classical beauty of Venus Kallipygos, while, below, the statue of a Satyr (which a Roman female friend of mine chose among a set and assured me:‘it’s a pretty good erotic sample.’ Well, I couldn’t but yield to her superior discernment.)

Satyr (or Satiro, in Italian)

Venus was the Goddess of love (both carnal and spiritual) while a Satyr was a Dionysian creature lover of wine, women and boys, and ready for every physical pleasure. Child satyrs existed also (which appears such a sad thing to us nowadays) and took part in Bacchanalian/Dionysian religious rituals, usually (or sometimes) involving orgies too.

At this point I’m sure every reader cannot but agree that the Greco-Romans had a VERY different attitude toward sex. No doubt about that. An ENTIRELY different attitude indeed.

lupaottimigut1.jpg

If we could forget that these are classical statues, if we could regard them just as they appear to us and out of their context, we’d surely see them as pornographic.

According to the Wikipedia:

“the concept of pornography as understood today did not exist until the Victorian era. …When large scale excavations of Pompeii were undertaken in the 1860s, much of the erotic art of the Romans came to light, shocking the Victorians who saw themselves as the intellectual heirs of the Roman Empire. They did not know what to do with the frank depictions of sexuality, and endeavored to hide them away ….. The moveable objects were locked away in the Secret Museum in Naples, Italy.”

[For more on these Pompeii erotic artifacts: this post of ours; two other posts, 1 and 2, from Ancient Digger, the former showing a video on the erotic artifacts, the latter discussing Roman sexuality & erotic art; a BBC program on the secret museum. Further readings are listed at the bottom of the page]

Shocking Roman Sexuality

Pan & goat Roman sex

Pan copulating with a she-goat. Click to enlarge and for credits (Wikimedia)

I do not quite agree with Wikipedia on how and when the modern concept of pornography was conceived, seeming this to me a totally Anglo-Saxon centred observation, forgetful of how history can be ancient.

I might be wrong (or right) but who the hell cares, chissenefrega, this whole Victorian thing being incredibly funny.

I can see these prudish Victorians feeling themselves as the heirs of the Romans (which somehow they were, at least in my view) who much to their horror found out how perverted the Romans had been (at least in their view), while together with the Italians they were uncovering all these sexy statues and frescoes.

I am imagining their shocked pale faces and am especially fantasizing about their shamefully and hastily helping the Neapolitans to hide somewhere the abominable truth.

The Neapolitans, incidentally, were at that time probably laughing at them a bit too, being of course much less disturbed by all those “frank depictions of sexuality” (try to guess why, dear reader … ).

Buttock Contest

Aphrodite of the Beautiful Buttocks. Fair use

Getting back to the Ancients, this Aphrodite of the Beautiful Buttocks is uncovering herself and looking back (and down) in order to evaluate her perfect behind.

The reason is again very simple (and very erotic, I’ll confess.) All originated from a buttock contest between two gorgeous sisters.

For which reason, who knows, this statue dedicated to Venus-Aphrodite might exactly represent both the winner and her behind. I mean – it’s sheer historical interest, of course – there’s a chance we are looking at her real ass. Not at usual idealized hindquarters according to Greek aesthetics.

And, the self-evaluation of her buttocks – pretty sure of that – was even more obvious than it appears today since statues were mostly painted in full colour therefore the direction of her gaze was probably more evident, her pupils being painted.

ψ

This cult of Venus-Aphrodite with beautiful buttocks appeared in Greek Syracuse (Sicily, Italy,) according to some ancient author, since this is where the sisters apparently lived.

Again, needless to say, it would be inconceivable nowadays to dedicate a sanctuary, a holy place, to a goddess because of a girl’s hot butttocks (read in the Wikipedia the whole peculiar story of the two lovely sisters.)

Goddess Venus

Esquiline Venus, in all her voluptuousness

Esquiline Venus, in all her voluptuousness, found in 1874 on the Esquiline Hill in Rome (from the Horti Lamiani possibly). Capitoline Museums, Rome. Click for credits and other pictures of her

Venus was the goddess of beauty, fertility and love.

The Roman Venus was born around Lavinium, according to Strabo. If true it was not by chance since Aeneas, the great Roman ancestor and son of Venus, landed in that area and founded the town after Lavinia, his wife. The Romans by the way were children of Venus and of Mars, the God of War: love and war – a weird mix, isn’t it.

This I am thinking while strolling between the Colosseum, to my left, and the temple of Venus and Roma, to my right, between these symbols of life and death. How multihued the Romans were.

The Greek Aphrodite was instead born in Cyprus – where the Greek student comes from, although I do not believe in signs like Brasilian Coelho does.

Vénus de l'Esquilin or Venus Esquilina

Vénus de l’Esquilin or Venus Esquilina, again. Some scholars suggest the model for this statue was Cleopatra herself. Flickr image, click for credits. Musei Capitolini. Roma

Young couples gathered close to the Venus temples for petting, necking and even coupling (green areas with temples where common in late Rome.) People were probably discreet but what is interesting is that their loving felt somehow enhanced, even sanctified by the presence of the Goddess, which is again unimaginable today despite our so-called sexual freedom.

Think of a today’s scenario where men and women flock near a Catholic or an Anglican church, in spring time, or in any time, for petting and all. I mean, even the mere thought could offend a true Christian.

Of course I do ask for pardon though please it’d also be nice if religious people did some effort as well. We are not here to offend religion(s) nor to make a porn site out this blog (which could make us richer though not necessarily happier.) We are here to talk about the Western roots. Now it turns these ancient Greeks & Romans had entirely different sexual mores.

Is it good? Is it bad? Hard to say. We somehow prefer the ancient customs though it is our personal opinion.  That is, we love to think Sex to equal Beauty, love and sex to be a sublime joy that shouldn’t be necessarily related to reproduction (like ALL Popes tried endlessly to teach us.)

lupaottimigut1.jpg

An Oppressive Revolution

OK, one might say. If these are our Western roots, what the hell has then happened? Why had we to undergo such an oppressive revolution which turned one of the joys of life into something indecent?

Was it because of the Victorians? Because of the Muslims? Was it because of the Christian priests and Fathers?

Perhaps the Victorians had later some influence on India, a country were the Kama Sutra was written, the first great text about love and sexual intercourse – beautiful, poetic and scientific – and the Victorians arrived with their not entirely positive influence in this field of human life …

[...if what the Wikipedia says is true.  I need some feedback by my Indians readers. Update: I received extensive Indian feedback one year later]

ψ

As for the West I am sure the answer is to be found during the times when the Roman Empire turned into a Christian Roman Empire, hence from Emperor Constantine onward (4th century AD.)

Not immediately though. It took some time, it surely took some time before we became totally repressed.

The Christians were mainly responsible, in my opinion, for this change of attitude (and for atrocities committed against non-Christians soon after Christianity took over), but it’d be fair to add that numerous pagans had already become a bit more puritanical as a reaction to some excesses.

ψ

One last thing. Are anywhere to be found survivals of such ancient freer attitude towards sex?

I believe so. We have said (Braudel had said) that big civilisations do not die. Plus we had entitled this post Permanences III (but changed its title later.)

Ok. Let’s not spoil what is next in the Sex and the city (of Rome) series.

A Roman Invoking Venus

We’ll conclude:

1) with this Roman copy of Castor and Pollux, or Dioscuri (youths of Zeus) by Praxiteles, Madrid (see below) – also enthusiastically approved by my female friend;

2) with Lucretius’ initial prayer to Venus.

ψ

Lucretius is a great Roman poet. From his verses one can get a good feel of how a real Ancient Roman felt about Venus.

So it is a pretty good conclusion for this Sex and the Romans num. 1 post.

If you are lucky enough to appreciate these verses you’ll live a unique experience, a real time-machine experience. This also classics offer, a time-machine experience.

Try to read these words attentively. You might penetrate the mysteries of a lost, arcane – though still living, still living – world …

Man of Roma

Dioskouroi. Madrid. Praxiteles (Roman copy) fair use

Lucretius’ De Rerum Natura.

Initial invocation to Venus.

“Mother of Rome, delight of Gods and men,
Dear Venus that beneath the gliding stars
Makest to teem the many-voyaged main
And fruitful lands- for all of living things
Through thee alone are evermore conceived,
Through thee are risen to visit the great sun-
Before thee, Goddess, and thy coming on,
Flee stormy wind and massy cloud away,
For thee the daedal Earth bears scented flowers,
For thee waters of the unvexed deep
Smile, and the hollows of the serene sky
Glow with diffused radiance for thee!

For soon as comes the springtime face of day,
And procreant gales blow from the West unbarred,
First fowls of air, smit to the heart by thee,
Foretoken thy approach, O thou Divine,
And leap the wild herds round the happy fields
Or swim the bounding torrents. Thus amain,
Seized with the spell, all creatures follow thee
Whithersoever thou walkest forth to lead,
And thence through seas and mountains and swift streams,
Through leafy homes of birds and greening plains,
Kindling the lure of love in every breast,
Thou bringest the eternal generations forth,
Kind after kind. And since ’tis thou alone
Guidest the Cosmos, and without thee naught
Is risen to reach the shining shores of light,
Nor aught of joyful or of lovely born,
Thee do I crave co-partner in that verse
Which I presume on Nature to compose
For Memmius mine, whom thou hast willed to be
Peerless in every grace at every hour-

Wherefore indeed, Divine one, give my words
Immortal charm. Lull to a timely rest
O’er sea and land the savage works of war,
For thou alone hast power with public peace
To aid mortality; since he who rules
The savage works of battle, puissant Mars,
How often to thy bosom flings his strength
O’ermastered by the eternal wound of love-
And there, with eyes and full throat backward thrown,
Gazing, my Goddess, open-mouthed at thee,
Pastures on love his greedy sight, his breath
Hanging upon thy lips. Him thus reclined
Fill with thy holy body, round, above!
Pour from those lips soft syllables to win
Peace for the Romans, glorious Lady, peace!.”

Of The Nature of Things [De Rerum Natura]
by Lucretius [Titus Lucretius Carus]
(Initial invocation to Venus)
Translated by William Ellery Leonard
(1876-1944)
Project Gutenberg Text

Reference and further reading:

  • Michael Grant and Antonia Mulas, Eros in Pompeii: The Erotic Art Collection of the Museum of Naples. New York: Stewart, Tabori and Chang, 1997 (translated from the original 1975 Italian edition).
  • Walter Kendrick, The Secret Museum: Pornography in Modern Culture (Berkley: University of California Press, 1996) ISBN 0-520-20729-7.
  • Antonio Varone, Eroticism in Pompeii. Getty Trust Publications: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2001.
  • John Clarke, Roman Sex: 100 B.C. to A.D. 250, New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2003.
  • “Colonel Fanin” (Stanislas Marie César Famin), The Royal Museum at Naples, being some account of the erotic paintings, bronzes and statues contained in that famous “cabinet secret”(1871) On-line translation of Musée royal de Naples; peintures, bronzes et statues érotiques du cabinet secret, avec leur explication, 1836. Brief introduction by J.B. Hare, 2003.

ψ

Related posts:

Sex and the city (of Rome) 2
Sex and the city (of Rome) 3
Sex and the city (of Rome) 4
Sex and the city (of Rome). A Conclusion

Caesar, Great Man (and Don Juan)

Sex and the city (of Rome). Season II. 1

See also:

Silvestri, Berlusconi and the Emperor Tiberius

About Man of Roma

I am a man from Rome, Italy. I’m 60 and a Roman since many generations. In my blog, manofroma.wordpress.com, I’m writing down my meditations. The idea behind it all is that something 'ancient' is still alive in the true Romans of today, of which few are left.

27 responses »

  1. To borrow one of Ishmeet’s phrases, “We are the people who invented one of the most known sex manual’s in the world and yet are one of the most strictest societies when sex comes up.” lol.

    The reason for this may be the rise of the “Priest”. People infact are against sexual education in schools thinking that their kids will get “bad habits”. *rolls eyes* The fact that their kids can get the information from somewhere else doesn’t seem to hit them. lol.

    And I don’t think the Victorian’s are to blame, Indian society had already begun to think of sex as something vulgar quite before that if ancient texts, poems and stories give any clue.

    I’ve heard somewhere that people used to worship Aphrodite by having sex with her priestesses… but probably a bit far-fetched.

    Reply
  2. @ Ashish
    I will reply more thoroughly to your comment…in the meanwhile, what do you mean by “if ancient texts, poems and stories give any clue”? Did these ancient texts already prepared the path for sexual repression, before the Victorians arrived?

    Reply
  3. @ Ashish

    The rise of the Priest … so it seems the same old problem everywhere.

    I’m not blaming the Victorians. I was just having some fun with them. Actually I admire them and it is not by chance that in order to get, so to say, ‘imperial inspiration’ when writing my first blog post on imperial Rome, I kept listening on and on to Sir Edward W. Elgar’s *Enigma Variations*, a bit romantic for the Roman spirit but a quintessence of what is both imperial and Victorian, I believe.

    Of course the English and the Italians have totally different habits, it is a sort of love-hate relationship we both have, but I won’t bore you eastern Indian guys with these silly European neuroses.

    What really struck me when I first came to India – I was 28-29 – was watching these Indian women (beautiful, I’ll admit) advancing in sea water with *clothes on*; while moments earlier I was staring on a picture book at the astonishing carvings of Khajuraho monuments. Something didn’t quite fit.

    I mean, I do not know if Khajuraho is a set of palaces or temples or both. All I know, I may be wrong, is that no civilization *ever dared* to show such incredible sexual things. So Ishmeet is probably right, and you are right, although it is not clear yet to me what the hell has happened, it is not at all clear lol.

    All the best, Ashish

    Reply
  4. Did these ancient texts already prepared the path for sexual repression, before the Victorians arrived?
    Well I’m no researcher but if you start to read Indian texts and stories since 500 Ad you’ll see that sex is regarded as something utterly disgusting and sin as the millennium progresses. Of course modern day editing may have butchered it but you can see between the lines that it was written that way. It was during this time that Hinduism took firm grip of the country. You may remember that Buddhism and Jainism were born in India, but during this time Buddhists were regarded as something inferior [which they are to this day] or in short the time of the rise of the priest.

    Thing is Women were never highly regarded and still aren’t regarded in some parts. Half the nation still lives in the dark ages while the other half lives on as if a virtually different nation.

    Reply
  5. @Ashish

    Half the nation still lives in the dark ages while the other half lives on as if a virtually different nation.

    Well, I am no pro researcher neither, but do not scorn too much the ‘dark ages’ side of your country. In there, I think, is still maybe the imprinting (and the peculiar richness) of your civilization(s). Do not think I mean only ‘modern’ is good.

    Reply
  6. Manofroma: I did not mean dark ages as in that. Huge sections of the nation [barring the cities, everywhere] caste, religion, child marriages, law & order, the “thinking” are problems. Not just tiny ones, but full-scale problems. The east demands independence, the south & the west lives in ignorance, half the north is plagued by militants while the other half is plagued by the aforementioned things. This is India where Babudom & religion plays a very huge role in the rural parts.

    On one hand we are one of the growing IT hubs, on the other one of the most backward societies when it comes to human rights. Most of the government jobs are given on a caste basis. As usual Politics uses everyone else for its own good be it Dalit ministers to for showcases or keeping all the babus happy….

    Reply
  7. 1ofURitSTUDentS

    I did not read this post…

    I was too busy looking at the delicious booty on that statue!!!

    Reply
  8. @1ofMyItSTUDentS
    Ah ah. I know who you are. You are really something.

    @All
    Let me walk a bit on the mountains around Rome: I’ll come back.

    Reply
  9. Some interesting comments I see over here AND SOME OF THEM, in my view are quite misleading…

    @Ashish
    “We are the people who invented one of the most known sex manual’s in the world and yet are one of the most strictest societies when sex comes up lol.

    …Ya true but u can laugh only if u can laugh at us being hypocrite… As for Kamasutra …I read some where … that the original manuscript has only three chapters that deal with SEX… rest are more about for elay and afterplay…

    @ man of Roma..
    Khajuraho is believed to be a set of temples

    @ Ashish
    Well I’m no researcher but if you start to read indian texts and stories since 500 Ad you’ll see that sex is regarded as something utterly disgusting and sin as the millenium progresses…

    I really don’t know what is the basis of such a statement.. 500 AD was the ERA of The Gupta Dynasty… the golden era in the indian history…
    They built several temles many of them being Sexually explict… Best of the examples can be seen in the rock cut caves and temples like Ajanta and Ellora.. which shows traditioal indian beauty … the hema malini types with a fuller bossoms and filled buttocks…not the malnutritioned Ashwariyas or Models…

    It was during this time that Hinduism took firm grip of the country. You may remember that Buddhism and Jainism were born in India, but during this time Buddhists were regarded as something inferior [which they are to this day or in short the time of the rise of the priest.

    You seem to be wrong here too …see Guptas..were Hindu kings but in NO WAY that made hinduism make a grip in India… Budhism was the dominant religion in India and is evident from thew rise of world class Universities like Nalanda, vikramshila, etc.. which were essentially maintained by the Budhist monks.. though teachers were there from other religions also… And these universities recieved generous grant from the Gupta rulers.. Again the system did not exclude sex completely from the teaching…
    FYI remember harrsh Vardhana embraced Budhism… in 8th century… don’t think so budhism was treated as unfair religion…
    Also right from Mauryan times may be even earlier kings have embraced budhism… so obviously it wass not a looked down upon religion…

    Again fall of woman from the Indian society started in medivial India with rise of Rajput and advent of Islam… We had no purdah system before that, they were allowed to participate in yajnas, choose her husband, and take profession of her choice.., remember leelavati daughter of Brahmgupta, was a mathematician though last point is dated quite earlier.

    And perhaps Hinduism is the only religion in the world where woman is allowed to give her child for adoption without father/husband or any male representative being present…

    Reply
  10. @Falcon
    Dear Falcon, welcome back and happy new year!

    All you say is very interesting to read, although I know so little about Indian history, so I just watch you two guys discuss it. At first Ashish and I disagreed on one element: my opinion was that India was more or less freer and only when Great Britain (the Victorians) arrived etc. things got stricter on sexual matters (he instead said that this sort of sexual puritanism appeared much earlier and that the Victorians were not to blame).

    I based my (superficial, I know) opinion on 2 things: 1) some talking I had with some Indian man of the road 30 years ago, when I visited Bombay with my wife and 2) some comment I had read in newspapers, in some books and in the adorable French Blue Guide I always brought with me during all my far eastern trips. I loved that old-fashioned French Blue Guide, very culture and knowledge oriented and much less practical (than guides are today).

    All the best

    Reply
  11. Pingback: Sex and the city (of Rome). A conclusion? « Man of Roma

  12. excellent want to see more to know more

    Reply
  13. @rajendramic

    Well, there are other posts concerning “Sex and the city (of Rome)”. They might let you know more, hard to say. Here they are:
    Sex and the city of Rome 2
    Sex and the city of Rome 3
    Sex and the city of Rome 4

    All the best

    Reply
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  16. Magnificent!!!

    Reply
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  21. Speaking of profound oxymorons (I am one)
    “having fun with the Victorians” should qualify…

    Reply
    • Hi Robert,

      yes, probably, I see what you mean. Welcome to my blog. Wel, well, I make fun of them a bit, but I recognize their value. Besides, they were stern, puritanical, though not deprived of sense of humour.

      Reply
  22. alfred hussein neuman

    In the age of AIDS, how anyone could describe moderation and restraint as the dark ages is exactly way 90% of the AIDS cases in the world are associated with sex outside marriage.

    Reply
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